Inverse relationships between bed period and myopia

Inverse relationships between bed period and myopia


This population-based, cross-sectional study using a nationwide, systemic, stratified, multistage, clustered sampling method included a total of 3625 subjects aged 12–19 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. All feeld participants underwent ophthalmic examination and a standardized interview including average sleep duration (hr/day), education, physical activity and economic status (annual household income). Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia. Myopia and high myopia were defined as ??0.50 dioptres (D) and ??6.0 D, respectively. Sleep durations were classified into 5 categories: <5, 6, 7, 8 and >9 hr.

Overall performance

The overall prevalence of myopia and high myopia were 77.8% and 9.4%, respectively, and the overall sleep duration was 7.1 hr/day. The refractive error increased by 0.10 D per 1 hr increase in sleep after adjusting for potential confounders including sex, age, height, education level, economic status and physical activity. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for refractive error was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.97) per 1 hr increase in sleep. The adjusted OR for myopia was decreased in those with >9 hr of sleep (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.38–0.93; p for trend = 0.006) than in those with <5 hr of sleep. However, high myopia was not associated with sleep duration.


This research has got the populace-depending, epidemiologic facts to possess an enthusiastic inverse dating between bed stage and you will myopia during the an agent inhabitants out of Korean teenagers.


Myopia is one of the most common ocular sickness related to artwork interference around the world (Morgan mais aussi al. 2012 ). The newest frequency off myopia is growing within a crisis price, particularly in East Asia and you will Southern-East China, and much more slower into the The united states, European countries, Israel and Australian continent (Morgan & Rose 2013 ). The costs pertaining to visual disability on account of myopia include modification from refractive error via cups, contact lenses and you will refractive functions. While doing so, brand new comorbidities and you will pathological effects in the high myopia can result inside major loss of sight and even blindness (Morgan ainsi que al. 2012 ). You will find after that personal costs with regards to loss of output of this myopia. Hence, you will find an ever growing dependence on methods to prevent the onset and you will progression of myopia.

Risk activities getting myopia was basically generally examined in the earlier epidemiologic knowledge (Bowl ainsi que al. 2012 ). Near functions, training, years, monetary updates and you can level were apparently reported to be associated having myopia (Zhang et al. 2011 ; ). Recently, a greater number of outside date try shown to have a protective impression up against myopia growth in one another mix-sectional degree (Rose et al. 2008a , b ) and you will longitudinal knowledge (Jones et al. 2007 ; Jones-Jordan et al. 2011 ; Guggenheim ainsi que al. 2012 ). One or two intervention studies have stated reductions when you look at the myopia from the increasing big date external (Wu et al. 2013 ), and you can an excellent around three-12 months school-mainly based input is served by stated positive effects (Guggenheim mais aussi al. 2012 ). It absolutely was postulated one improved sunlight power external develops dopamine discharge about retina, and that decrease eyes gains, and that theory has been confirmed inside some laboratory degree into the fresh myopia dogs (Gao ainsi que al. 2005 ; McCarthy mais aussi al. 2007 ; Stone ainsi que al. 2007 ; Feldkaemper & Schaeffel 2013 ).

We have prior to now advertised new quite high frequency away from myopia and you will high myopia during the young communities when you look at the urban (Seoul, 96.5% and you may 21.6%, respectively) and you may outlying (Jeju, 83.3% and you can 6.8%, respectively) parts inside the South Korea ( ). Furthermore, i have said the new fast secular changes in the frequency away from myopia within the an agent Korean population (Kim mais aussi al. 2013a ). These types of change are most likely of this severe investigation demands into the Korean students, as Korean youngsters are one of many large artisans in the international PISA studies out-of university results (Morgan & Rose 2013 ). Especially in their adolescent decades, Korean teens have also been stated having lack of sleep, particularly in the senior years of high-school (Yang mais aussi al. 2005 ; Rhie mais aussi al. 2011 ). We hence hypothesized one insufficient sleep ined which hypothesis having fun with affiliate populace-oriented research on Korean NHANES education.

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